If the Amazon rainforest were a country, it would be the seventh largest in the world. The carbon stored in this immense tropical forest is critical to the trajectory of climate change. The more carbon that remains locked up in trees, the less there is in the atmosphere.
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But deforestation and forest degradation the death or removal of individual trees are again on the rise. And while these human pressures increase, climate change impacts are taking a toll, with drought and wildfires ravaging areas of forest.
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While almost no fires occurred in indigenous reserves prior to , wildfires are now seen every three to five years in drier regions. On the frontlines of this struggle are land managers, government officials, and indigenous leaders responsible for managing and protecting the forests. In the summer of , Woods Hole Research Center scientists held four workshops to deliver the latest and best climate science to the people responsible for the future of the Amazon.
Marcia Macedo. We want to translate our science into accessible formats that can inform their day-to-day management and broader policy decisions. All told, more than attendees from at least 50 institutes took part in the weeklong trainings. Clicking on a specific region brings up an easy-to-read toolbar, with options to look at historical data or projections over different future time periods. Attendees said that having access to climate data from a reputable and impartial scientific research organization was critical to getting it integrated into policies, regulations, and planning.
Mogollon attended the Peruvian workshop in June.
The challenge is to link those changes to scientific data. From there, we need to identify adaptation measures. Nevertheless, it is quickly emerging as a fundamental area of science with disease-related implications. Broadly speaking, the field investigates the organization of eukaryotic cells — a category of nonbacterial cells that includes everything from yeast to flies to humans.
The cell itself and many of the well-known organelles within it have membranes to compartmentalize the activities that keep cells functioning.
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Membrane-bound organelles are like balloons within the balloon of the larger cell membrane, Dr. Over the last decade or so, mechanistic ideas are finally emerging about how these compartments form and their likely function within cells. That awareness created a sea change in the biological world, and also in the biophysical world, he says. Although the structures themselves were first identified a century and a half ago, an understanding of the physical and molecular mechanisms that form them has eluded explanation until recently.
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As a result, the structures he and the other 70 researchers at the summer institute studied go by several names as the nascent field tries to settle on one. Those include membraneless organelles, biomolecular condensates, cellular bodies, compartments, granules, and examples of biological phase separation. Caruth, Jr.
Rosen says, adding that there are strong disease connections in neurodegeneration and other conditions. To develop the field as quickly as possible, the Woods Hole Summer Institute participants spent each academic year planning and designing a range of experiments as well as developing reagents that could be shared among groups, Dr. Once at Woods Hole, they did experiments by day and discussed them at breakfast, lunch, and dinner — most served cafeteria-style. They also gathered at cookouts and campfires for evenings spent devising and revising experiments in order to do as many as possible at each summer gathering, he says.
They took the best ideas back to their laboratories to continue the research through another academic year of planning for the next summer of work. The experiment in creating investigational teams paid off. Several projects arose from the collaboration including one that led to a Cell paper on which Dr.
Yuh Min Chook and Dr.
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Rosen, her husband, are corresponding authors. The research that grew out of the Woods Hole project marks their first substantive collaboration since they met in the Harvard library during their Ph. They always excelled in very different areas of biophysics — hers closer to pharmacology, his more abstract — thus their scientific convergence was unexpected. Chook says.
Proper binding and transport appear essential for the protein FUS fused in sarcoma. FUS that cannot be transported into the nucleus remains in the gel-like cytoplasm of the cell and tends to self-associate stick to itself and form droplets of FUS suspended in the cytoplasm that look like the drops that form after a flask of oil and vinegar dressing is shaken, i.
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Death usually occurs within 10 years after symptom onset. An estimated 90 to 95 percent of ALS cases occur sporadically in people with no apparent family history.
Several genes have been identified for the familial form of the disease fALS , which accounts for an estimated 5 to 10 percent of all ALS cases. In , Dr.
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When the transport system fails, droplets of FUS protein clump together in the cytoplasm, perhaps eventually becoming solid and toxic in the motor neurons of ALS patients. Her discoveries allowed neuroscientists to figure out how FUS mutations lead to the aggregation of the FUS protein in the cytoplasm, but many questions remained.